What is SAP Query? Purpose and Advantages of SAP Query?

By Suraj Kumar Pabbathi

SAP Query is SAP’s tool to define and execute once own
reports without knowing ABAP programming language. 

Let us see the key topics to explore SAP Query. 

Topic #

Topic

1

What is Query?

Purpose of Query.

Advantages of Query

2

Infosets/UserGroups/Query in Detail

3

Practical session covering important working models –
I

4

Practical session covering important models-II

Various Lists and Background Scheduling

In this document we
shall cover Topic#1. 

What is SAP query and why do we need queries? 

Many times a need arises for SAP Users and Functional
Consultants to generate quick reports without getting any ABAP coding done –
time taken to complete the coding in development, transport and test it in QA
system and then transport to production – is sometimes too long. In such
cases, SAP query is a tool provided by SAP for generating these kinds of
reports. 

Purpose

  • The
    SAP Query application is used to create reports not already contained in the
    default. It has been designed for users with little or no knowledge of the
    SAP programming language ABAP.

  • SAP
    Query offers users a broad range of ways to define reports and create
    different types of reports such as basic lists, statistics, and ranked
    lists.
  • These
    outputs can include lists on screens in table format, ALV grids,
    downloadable spreadsheets, and downloadable flat files. The internal report
    generator creates an ABAP program corresponding to the definition of the
    list.

Features:

The SAP Query comprises five components: 

Ø     
Queries

Ø     
InfoSet Query

Ø     
InfoSets

Ø     
User Groups

Ø     
Translation/Query 

Classic reporting- the creation
of lists, statistics and ranked lists- are covered by the InfoSet Query and
Queries components. Other components’ range of functions cover the
maintenance of InfoSets, the administration of user groups and also the
translation of texts created in the SAP Query. All data required by a
user for a report can be read from various tables. 

To define a report, you first
have to enter individual texts, such as titles, and select the fields and
options, which determine the report layout. In the WYSIWYG (What You See Is What
You Get) mode, you can edit the lists using Drag & Drop and various
toolbars. 

Overview:

The following sections describes the individual SAP Query
components and provides general information about query areas, transport and
authorizations 

Menu Path

Used For

Transaction Code

à
SAP Query à
Queries

Maintaining Queries

SQ01

à
SAP Query à
InfoSets

Maintaining InfoSets

SQ02

à
SAP Query à
User Groups

Maintaining User Groups

SQ03

à
Translation à
Query

Language Comparision

SQ07

 Query Components

The Queries component is used by end users to
maintain queries.

You can carry out the following tasks:

Ø     
Execute Queries and Generate Lists

Ø     
Define Queries

Ø     
Change Queries

Infosets Components

Ø     
InfoSets are special views of data sources.

Ø     
An InfoSet describes which fields of a data source can be reported
on in queries.

Ø     
InfoSets are assigned to user groups.

Ø     
End-users are able to work only with those InfoSets that are
relevant to their particular area, as designated by the role or user group that
they are assigned to.

Ø     
Eg: Vendor master data can be important in purchasing as well as
in accountancy. The relevant InfoSet is assigned to both roles/user groups. This
means that queries based on this InfoSet can be copied and executed by both
groups.

User Groups Components

  1. The
    User Groups component is used to maintain user groups. The system
    administrator uses it to set up the work environment for end-users.
  2. Every
    user assigned to the user group is able to execute the query.
  3. Users
    are not allowed to modify queries from other user groups, although they may,
    under certain circumstances, copy and execute

Translation/Query Component

Ø     
A great deal of text is generated when defining queries, InfoSets,
and user groups.

Ø     
The SAP Query displays these texts in the language that you chose
when you logged on to the SAP system.

Ø     
You can compare the text languages using the component Translation/Query.

Ø     
A related text in one or more additional languages is made
available for each of the texts created when defining the query.

Query Areas

A query area contains a set of query objects (queries,
InfoSets, and user groups) that are discrete and consistent.

There are the following query areas:

Ø     
Standard area

Ø     
Global area

Standard Area

1.Client specific

2.Query objects are not attached to the Workbench Organizer

Advantage :-End users can develop queries (ad-hoc reports) in
their own client that are not meant for use in the rest of the system.

Global Area

1.Cross client

2.Query objects are attached to workbench organizer

Advantage:-The global query area is well suited for centrally
developing queries meant for use and distribution throughout the system.

Authorizations

End-users, system administrators, and translators must all
be assigned the appropriate authorizations allowing them to work with the SAP
Query. 

In order to give individual users targeted, specific
rights, the following options are available:

Ø     
Roles/user groups

Ø     
Authorizations

Steps to create a Query

Step

Description

TCODE

1

Create a infoset or functional area

SQ02

2

Assignment of user group to infoset

SQ03

3

Creation of query based on infoset

SQ01

Tools for Queries 

The following are the tools to manage, create and change
queries.

Ø     
Infoset Query

Ø     
Queries

Ø     
Quick viewer

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