ABAP Tips 2

Basic Concepts Explained :

STATUS ICON

Status icon is used in screens to indicate visually about the status of the
program.Before the status icon can be used ,it should be placed on the
screen,it is a type of screen element.
To use the status icon we have to write some abap code and also to
change icons whenever required in the program. First step is to create
a variable of type ICONS-TEXT.

e.g. DATA: status TYPE ICONS-TEXT.
The name of the variable in the abap program should be same as that
of in the screen.
Declaring it merely wont show anything , we have to use the function module ICON_CREATE to fill it with the required icon, generally PBO of the screen is used for this purpose. There are 3 parameters to be passed.

CALL FUNCTION ‘ICON_CREATE’
EXPORTING
NAME = ‘icon name’
TEXT = ‘text to be displayed’
INFO = ‘tooltip text’

Here name can be anything like ICON_RED_LIGHT,ICON_GREEN_LIGHT etc. Infact any icon can be shown that exists but we should adhere to SAP
recommended style guidelines

CONTEXT MENU

Context menu can be used in relation with the various screen elements
like I/O fields, subscreen,group box,table control but not with push buttons,radio,check buttons.
It can be used to show related options when the user right clicks on the screen elements. It is a type of status. SAP automatically creates a default context menu for dialog statuses consisting of all the function codes available.
We can create a context menu statically using the menu painter(SE41)
or dynamically by using the methods of the global class CL_CTMENU.
All context menus are objects of this global class.
There are number of methods which can be used to create and modify context menu dynamically . These are:

LOAD_GUI_STATUS
This method is used to load a static context menu already defined using
menu painter.The exporting parameters are PROGRAM ,STATUS and MENU. Where MENU indicates the menu to which the context menu will be attached .

ADD_FUNCTION
This method adds a function code to the menu ,The exporting parameters are FCODE and TEXT. These are used to specify the function code and the corresponding text in the men.
ADD_MENU
This method adds a context menu to another one.
ADD_SEPARATOR
This method adds a separator line.
ADD_SUBMENU
This method adds a menu to another one as a sub menu the exporting parameters are MENU and the TEXT that will be displayed.
HIDE_FUNCTIONS
SHOW_FUNCTIONS
DISABLE_FUNCTIONS
ENABLE_FUNCTIONS

These functions are used to modify the context menu by hiding,enabling etc them.

SET_DEFAULT_FUNCTION
This method will mark a particular menu item as the default one ,the corresponding function code is passed as an exporting parameter.

The context menu should be linked to the screen element in the screen painte(SE51) by specifying an ID which is known as CONTEXT in the context menu field.
We can specify the same context for different screen elements or different context for different elements.
For each context specified in the screen painter a special call back
subroutine is used in the abap program. the syntax of this special routine
is:

FORM ON_CTLMENU_context USING menu TYPE REF TO CL_CTMENU

ENDFORM
This subroutine can be used to modify or load or create a context menu at runtime when the user right clicks the screen element.
In the above subroutine the context is the context assigned to the screen element and menu is the menu object that was passed to this call back routine which is initially blank, we have to use methods of the class as stated above to create a working menu or load an existing static context menu previously build in the menu painter.

e.g. To load an existing context menu
FORM on_ctmenu_text USING menu TYPE REF TO cl_ctmenu.
CALL METHOD menu->load_gui_status
EXPORTING program = prog
status = ‘CON_MENU’
menu = menu .
CALL METHOD menu->set_default_function
EXPORTING fcode = ‘list’.
ENDFORM.

e.g. CREATING A NEW CONTEXT MENU DYNAMICALLY.

FORM on_ctmenu_text USING menu TYPE REF TO cl_ctmenu.
DATA new_menu TYPE REF TO cl_ctmenu.
CREATE OBJECT new_menu.
CALL METHOD new_menu->add_function
EXPORTING fcode = ‘list’
text = text-001.

CALL METHOD new_menu->add_function
EXPORTING fcode = ‘add’
text = text-002. CALL METHOD new_menu->add_function
EXPORTING fcode = ‘delete’
text = text-003.

CALL METHOD new_menu->add_submenu
EXPORTING menu = new_menu
text = text-005.
ENDFORM.

The ABAP program should check for the OK_CODE field to find out whichmenu item was selected by the user. Selecting a function code will trigger a PAI while right clicking will not trigger the PAI.

SCREEN KEYWORDS
Screen language is used to create Screen Flow Logic, It is similar to ABAP but with limited functionality .Only certain keywords can be used
and these are:

PROCESS
MODULE
FIELD
ON
LOOP
ENDLOOP
CHAIN
ENDCHAIN
CALL

SCREEN EVENTS
Screen Flow Logic serves as the cotainer for screen processing blocks.There are four events processing block supported out of which
FIRST two are automatically inserted when we create a new screen. The 4 events are:

PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT
This event is fired just before the screen is displayed .
e.g. MODULE LOAD_STATUS_1000 .
PROCESSS AFTER INPUT
This event is fired when user selects a function code or presses enter key
e.g. MODULE USER_COMMAND_1000 .
PROCESS ON HELP-REQUEST
This event is fired when the user presses F1 key.
PROCESS ON VALUE-REQUEST
This event is fired when the user presses F4 key.

These events are triggered by the runtime environment.The ABAP
program serves as the container for the processing blocks associated with
these events.Each processing block in ABAP starts with the keyword MODULE .
PBO modules have OUTPUT keyword attached to them while for remaining 3 events there associated modules have INPUT keyword attached to them in the ABAP program.
e.g. MODULE LOAD_STATUS_1000 OUTPUT.
MODULE USER_COMMAND_1000 INPUT.

MODULE name AT EXIT-COMMAND
The specified module is called when the user selects a function code of type E like BACK,EXIT and CANCEL in PAI all other dialog modules are bypassed.

GUI STATUS & TITLE
SET PF-STATUS status OF PROGRAM prog EXCLUDING f statement is used
to set the status of a ABAP program.The status provides user interface.It consists
of standard toolbar,application toolbar and menu.When ever the user selects a function the function code is placed in the OK_CODE field and structure SYST-UCOMM. The status is set in PBO event.
The title is set using
SET TITLEBAR title OF PROGRAM program WITH p1 p2
where the values for p1 p2 can be specified at run time. Menu Painter (SE41) is used to create GUI status and titlebar.
SCREEN FIelds & OK_CODE
Screen fields are fields in the working memory of the screen ,these are attached
to the screen elements.There contents are passed to similarly named fields in abap program during PAI and viceversa in PBO.
OK_CODEeld is a 20 char field which is found in every screen , it stores the function code selected by the user.It’s contents are same as that of SY_UCOMM.It is a screen element.

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